Turkish

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Turkish Alphabet

Learning the Turkish alphabet is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. Without it, you will not be able to say words properly even if you know how to write those words. The better you pronounce a letter in a word, the more understood you will be in speaking the Turkish language.

Below is a table showing the Turkish alphabet and how it is pronounced in English, and finally examples of how those letters would sound if you place them in a word.

Turkish Alphabet English Sound Pronunciation Example
A a /a/ ‘a’ as in father
B b /b/ ‘b’ as in book
C c /dʒ/ ‘j’ as in Joke
Ç ç /tʃ/ ‘ch’ as in chimpanzee
D d /d/ ‘d’ as in day
E e /e/, /ɛ/ ‘e’ as in red or ‘a’ as in cat
F f /f/ ‘f’ as in far
G g /ɡ/, /ɟ/ ‘g’ as in game
Ğ ğ /ɣ/1 No equivalent, watch video below
H h /h/ ‘h’ as in hot
I ı /ɯ/ ‘e’ as in open
İ i /i/ ‘i’ as in machine
J j /ʒ/ ‘s’ as in pleasure
K k /k/, /c/ ‘k’ as in kilo
L l /l/, /ɫ/ ‘l’ as in life
M m /m/ ‘m’ as in master
N n /n/ ‘n’ as in nice
O o /o/ ‘o’ as in more
Ö ö /ø/ ‘u’ as in turn
P p /p/ ‘p’ as in spin
R r /ɾ/ the ‘r’ as in car
S s /s/ ‘s’ as in smile
Ş ş /ʃ/ ‘sh’ as in shine
T t /t/ ‘t’ as in stop
U u /u/ ‘u’ as in ultimate
Ü ü /y/ ‘u’ as in cube
V v /v/ ‘v’ as in victory
Y y /j/ ‘y’ as in you
Z z /z/ ‘z’ as in zigzag

Turkish Pronunciation

 

 

 

Turkish Numbers

Learning the Turkish Numbers displayed below is vital to the language. Turkish cardinal number convey the “how many” they’re also known as “counting numbers,” because they show quantity.

Grammar Tips:

In Turkish numbers are as follows:

1: bir                = one                           11: on bir         = eleven

2: iki                 = two                           12: on iki          = twelve

3:üç                 = three                         13: on üç         = thirteen

4: dört              = four

5: beş              = five                           In Turkish we always say the tens digit first, then the ones

6: altı                = six                            digit.

7: yedi             =seven

8: sekiz            = eight

9: dokuz          = nine

10: on              =ten

20: yirmi  30: otuz  40: kırk  50: elli  60: atmış  70: yetmiş  80: seksen  90:doksan  100: yüz

Some examples:  28: yirmi sekiz  ( tens digit first; ones digit second. )

31: otuz bir

45: kırk beş

57: elli yedi

 

Here are some examples:

English Numbers Turkish Numbers
numbers numaralar
one bir
two iki
three üç
four dört
five beş
six altı
seven yedi
eight sekiz
nine dokuz
ten on
eleven on bir
twelve oniki
thirteen on üç
fourteen on dört
fifteen onbeş
sixteen on altı
seventeen on yedi
eighteen onsekiz
nineteen on dokuz
twenty yirmi
hundred yüz
one thousand bin
million milyon

Notice the structure of the Numbers in Turkish.

List of Ordinal Numbers in Turkish

Turkish Ordinal numbers tell the order of things in a set: first, second, third, etc. Ordinal numbers do not show quantity. They only show rank or position. Below is a list of the Cardinal Numbers and Ordinal Numbers in Turkish. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Turkish vocabulary.

English Numbers Turkish Numbers
Ordinal Numbers
first birinci, ilk
second ikinci
third üçüncü
fourth dördüncü
fifth beşinci
sixth altıncı
seventh yedinci
eighth sekizinci
ninth dokuzuncu
tenth onuncu
eleventh on birinci
twelfth on ikinci
thirteenth on üçüncü
fourteenth on dördüncü
fifteenth on beşinci
sixteenth on altıncı
seventeenth on yedinci
eighteenth on sekizinci
nineteenth on dokuzuncu
twentieth yirminci
once bir kere
twice iki kere

 

Cardinal Numbers and Ordinal Numbers have a very important role in Turkish. Once you’re done with Turkish Numbers, you might want to check the rest of our Turkish lessons here: Learn Turkish. Don’t forget to bookmark this page.

 

 

 

 

 

Turkish Phrases

Learning the Turkish Phrases displayed below is vital to the language. Turkish phrases are a group of words functioning as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence. Here are some examples:

English Phrases Turkish Phrases
Phrases İfadeler
hello merhaba
bye hoşça kal
congratulations tebrikler
sorry üzgünüm
really gerçekten

Notice the structure of the Phrases in Turkish.

List of Phrases in Turkish

Below is a list of the phrases and daily expressions in Turkish placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Turkish vocabulary.

English Phrases Turkish Phrases
a green tree yeşil bir ağaç
a tall building yüksek bir bina
a very old man çok yaşlı bir adam
the old red house eski kırmızı ev
a very nice friend çok hoş bir arkadaş
I read a book sometimes Bazen kitap okurum
I will never smoke Asla sigara içmeyeceğim
are you alone? Yalnız mısın?
my car arabam
green car yeşil araba
three cars üç araba
car garage araba garajı
outside the car araç dışında
my book kitabım
my books kitaplarım
our daughter kızımız
our daughters kızlarımız
I’m cold Üşüyorum
we’re cold üşüyoruz
his chickens tavukları
their chicken tavukları
he is happy (O) mutlu
she is happy (O) mutlu
he is American (O) Amerikalı
she is American (O) Amerikalı
I can accept that Bunu kabul edebilirim
she added it ekledi
we admit it kabul etti
they advised him onu tavsiye ettiler
I can agree with that katılabilirim
she allows it buna izin veriyor
we announce it bunu duyurduk
I can apologize özür dileyebilirim
she appears today bugün görünür
they arranged that bunu onlar düzenlemiş
I can arrive tomorrow yarın varabilirim
she can ask him ona sorabilir
she attaches that şunu ekler
we attack them onlara saldırdık
they avoid her ondan çekiniyorlar
I can bake it onu fırında pişirebilirim
she is like him Ona benzer
we beat it onu kovduk, dövdük
they became happy mutlu oldular
I can begin that şununla başlayabilirim
we borrowed money ödünç para aldık
they breathe air hava soluyorlar
I can bring it onu getirebilirim
I can build that onu inşa edebilirim
she buys food yiyecek (satın) alıyor
we calculate it bunu hesapladık
they carry it onu taşıyorlar
they don’t cheat hile yapmıyorlar
she chooses him onu seçti
we close it kapattık
he comes here buraya geliyor
I can compare that şununla karşılaştırabilirim ki
she competes with me bana rakip
we complain about it ondan şikayetçiyiz
they continued reading okumaya devam ettiler
he cried about that … için göz yaşı döktü
I can decide now şimdi karar verebilirim
she described it to me onu bana tarif etti
we disagree about it onun hakkında aynı fikirde değiliz
they disappeared quickly hızla kayboldular
I discovered that şunu anladım ki
she dislikes that … dan hoşlanmaz
we do it biz yaparız
they dream about it … çok istiyorlar
I earned kazandım
he eats a lot çok yiyiyor
we enjoyed that … hoşumuza gitti
they entered here buraya girdiler
he escaped that … dan kaçtı
I can explain that Ben açıklayabilirim ki
she feels that too Bunu o da hissediyor
we fled from there oradan
they will fly tomorrow yarın uçacak / uçakla gidecek
I can follow you seni takip edebilirim
she forgot me o beni unuttu
we forgive him onu affedelim
I can give her that Bunu ona verebilirim
she goes there oraya gidiyor
we greeted them onları selamladık
I hate that Bundan nefret ediyorum
I can hear it onu duyabiliyorum
she imagine that … hayal ediyor
we invited them onları davet ettik
I know him Onu tanıyorum
she learned it onu öğrendi
we leave now şimdi çıkıyoruz
they lied about him onun hakkında yalan söylediler
I can listen to that Bunu dinleyebilirim
she lost that bunu kaybetti
we made it yesterday onu dün yaptık
they met him onunla buluştular
I misspell that bunu yanlış yazdım
I always pray her zaman dua ederim
she prefers that bunu tercih eder
we protected them onları koruduk
they will punish her onu cezalandıracaklar
I can put it there onu oraya koyabilirim
she will read it onu okuyacak
we received that bunu aldık
they refuse to talk konuşmayı reddediyorlar
I remember that bunu hatırlıyorum
she repeats that bunu tekrarlıyor
we see it onu görüyoruz
they sell it onu sattılar
I sent that yesterday bunu dün gönderdim
he shaved his beard sakalını kesti
it shrunk quickly hızla küçüldü
we will sing it onu söyleyeceğiz (şarkı)
they sat there orada oturuyorlar
I can speak it bunu konuşabilirim
she spends money o para harcar
we suffered from that biz bundan zarar gördük
they suggest that bunu önerdiler
I surprised him onu şaşırttım
she took that bunu aldı
we teach it onu öğrettik
they told us bize anlattılar
she thanked him ona teşekkür etti
I can think about it bunu düşünebilirim
she threw it onu attı
we understand that bunu anlıyoruz
they want that bunu istiyorlar
I can wear it onu giyebilirim
she writes that … diye yazıyor
we talk about it hakkında konuşuyoruz
they have it buna sahipler
I watched it (onu) izledim
I will talk about it bunun hakkında konuşacağım
he bought that yesterday bunun dün aldı
we finished it (onu) bitirdik
inside the house evin içinde
outside the car aracın dışında
with me benimle beraber (yanımda)
without him onsuz
under the table Masanın altında
after tomorrow yarından sonra
before sunset gün batımından önce
but I’m busy ama meşgulüm
he is not here O burada değil
that is not my book bu benim kitabım değil
do not enter girmeyin
where is he? o nerede?
what is this? bu nedir?
why are you sad? neden üzgünsün?
how do you want to pay? nasıl ödemek istersiniz?
can I come? gelebilir miyim?
is he sleeping? o uyuyor mu?
do you know me? beni tanıyor musunuz?
do you have my book? sende benim kitabım var mı?
how big is it? ne kadar büyük?
can I help you? Sana yardım edebilir miyim?
can you help me? Bana yardımcı olabilir misiniz?
do you speak English? ingilizce konuşuyor musunuz?
how far is this? (bu) ne kadar uzak?
what time is it? saat kaç?
how much is this? bu ne kadar?, kaç para?
what is your name? senin adın ne?
where do you live? nerede yaşıyorsun?

 

Phrases and daily expressions have a very important role in Turkish. Once you’re done with Turkish Phrases, you might want to check the rest of our Turkish lessons here: Learn Turkish. Don’t forget to bookmark this page.

 

 

 

Turkish Vocabulary

Learning the Turkish Vocabulary displayed below is vital to the language. Turkish vocabulary is the set of words you should be familiar with. A vocabulary usually grows and evolves with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge. Here are some examples:

English Vocabulary Turkish Vocabulary
Vocabulary Sözlük
Countries Ülkeler
Australia Avustralya
Cambodia Kamboçya
Canada Kanada
China Çin
Egypt Mısır
England İngiltere
France Fransa
Germany Almanya
Greece Yunanistan
India Hindistan
Indonesia Endonezya
Italy İtalya
Japan Japonya
Mexico Meksika
Morocco Fas
Peru Peru
Spain İspanya
Thailand Tayland
USA Amerika Birleşik Devletleri
Languages Diller
Arabic Arapça
Chinese Çince
English İngilizce
French Fransızca
German Almanca
Greek Yunanca
Hebrew İbranice
Hindi Hintçe
Italian İtalyanca
Japanese Japonca
Korean Korece
Latin Latince
Russian Rusça
Spanish İspanyolca
Urdu Urduca
Days Günler
Monday Pazartesi
Tuesday Salı
Wednesday Çarşamba
Thursday Perşembe
Friday Cuma
Saturday Cumartesi
Sunday Pazar
time zaman
hour saat
minute dakika
second saniye

List of Vocabulary in Turkish

Below is a list of the vocabulary and expressions in Turkish placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Turkish vocabulary.

English Vocabulary Turkish Vocabulary
Vocabulary
colors renkler
black siyah
blue mavi
brown kahverengi
gray gri
green yeşil
orange portakal rengi
purple mor
red kırmızı
white beyaz
yellow sarı
sizes boyutlar
big büyük
deep derin
long uzun
narrow dar
short kısa
small küçük
tall uzun, yüksek
thick kalın
thin ince
wide geniş
tastes tatlar
bitter acı
fresh taze
salty tuzlu
sour ekşi
spicy baharatlı
sweet tatlı
qualities nitelikler
bad kötü
clean temiz
dark karanlık
difficult zor
dirty kirli
dry kuru
easy kolay
empty boş
expensive pahalı
fast hızlı
foreign yabancı
full tam, noksansız, dolu
good iyi
hard sert
heavy ağır
inexpensive ucuz
light hafif
local yerel
new yeni
noisy gürültülü
old eski
powerful güçlü
quiet sessiz
correct doğru
slow yavaş
soft yumuşak
very çok
weak zayıf
wet ıslak
wrong yanlış
young genç
food gıda
almonds badem
bread ekmek
breakfast kahvaltı
butter tereyağı
candy şeker
cheese peynir
chicken tavuk
cumin kimyon
dessert tatlı
dinner akşam yemeği
fish balık
fruit meyve
ice cream dondurma
lamb kuzu
lemon limon
lunch öğle yemeği
meal yemek
meat et
oven fırın
pepper biber
plants bitkiler
pork domuz eti
salad salata
salt tuz
sandwich sandviç
sausage sosis
soup çorba
sugar şeker
supper akşam yemeği
turkey hindi
apple elma
banana muz
oranges portakal
peaches şeftali
peanut fıstık
pears armut
pineapple ananas
grapes üzüm
strawberries çilek
vegetables sebze
carrot havuç
corn mısır
cucumber salatalık
garlic sarımsak
lettuce marul
olives zeytin
onions soğan
peppers biber
potatoes patates
pumpkin kabak
beans fasulye
tomatoes domates
alligator timsah
alligators timsahlar
bear ayı
bears ayılar
bird kuş
birds kuşlar
bull boğa
bulls boğalar
cat kedi
cats kediler
cow inek
cows inekler
deer geyik
many deer bir çok geyik
dog köpek
dogs Köpekler
donkey eşek
donkeys eşekler
eagle kartal
eagles kartallar
elephant fil
elephants filler
giraffe zürafa
giraffes zürafalar
goat keçi
goats keçiler
horse at
horses atlar
lion aslan
lions aslanlar
monkey maymun
monkeys maymunlar
mouse fare
mice fareler
rabbit tavşan
rabbits tavşanlar
snake yılan
snakes yılanlar
tiger kaplan
tigers kaplanlar
wolf kurt
wolves kurtlar
objects nesneler
bathroom banyo
bed yatak
bedroom yatak odası
ceiling tavan
chair sandalye
clothes elbise
coat palto
cup fincan
desk büro
dress elbise
floor zemin
fork çatal
furniture mobilya
glass bardak
hat şapka
house ev
ink mürekkep
jacket ceket
kitchen mutfak
knife bıçak
lamp lamba
letter mektup
map harita
newspaper gazete
notebook defter
pants pantolon
paper kâğıt
pen kalem
pencil kurşun kalem
pharmacy eczane
picture resim
plate plaka
refrigerator buzdolabı
restaurant restoran
roof çatı
room oda
rug halı, kilim
scissors makas
shampoo şampuan
shirt gömlek
shoes ayakkabı
soap sabun
socks çorap
spoon kaşık
table masa
toilet tuvalet
toothbrush diş fırçası
toothpaste diş macunu
towel havlu
umbrella şemsiye
underwear iç çamaşırı
wall duvar
wallet cüzdan
window pencere
telephone telefon
this bu
that o
these bunlar
those Bu
Questions Sorular
how? nasıl?
what? ne?
who? kim?
why? neden?
where? nerede?
different objects değişik nesneler
art sanat
bank banka
beach plaj
book kitap
by bicycle bisikletle
by bus Otobüsle
by car Arabayla
by train Trenle
cafe kafe
country ülke
desert çöl
dictionary sözlük
earth dünya, toprak
flowers çiçek
football futbol
forest orman
game oyun
garden bahçe
geography coğrafya
history tarih
house ev
island ada
lake göl
library kütüphane
math matematik
moon ay
mountain dağ
movies filmler
music müzik
ocean okyanus
office ofis
on foot yaya, yaya olarak
player oyuncu
river nehir
science bilim
sea deniz
sky gökyüzü
soccer futbol
stars yıldızlar
supermarket süpermarket
swimming pool yüzme havuzu
theater tiyatro
tree ağaç
weather hava
bad weather Kötü hava
cloudy bulutlu
cold soğuk
cool serin
foggy sisli
hot sıcak
nice weather güzel hava
pouring dökme
rain yağmur
raining Yağmur yağıyor
snow kar
snowing kar yağıyor
ice buz
sunny güneşli
windy rüzgârlı
spring bahar
summer yaz
autumn sonbahar
winter kış
people insanlar
aunt teyze, hala, yenge
baby bebek
brother (Erkek) kardeş
cousin kuzen
daughter kız
dentist dişçi
doctor doktor
father baba
grandfather büyükbaba
grandmother büyükanne
husband koca
mother anne
nephew (Erkek) yeğen
niece (Kız) yeğen
nurse hemşire
policeman polis
postman postacı
professor profesör
son oğul
teacher öğretmen
uncle amca
wife eş, karı

 

Vocabulary and expressions have a very important role in Turkish. Once you’re done with Turkish Vocabulary, you might want to check the rest of our Turkish lessons here: Learn Turkish. Don’t forget to bookmark this page.

 

 

 

 

 

Turkish Grammar

If you’re trying to learn the most essential topics about Turkish you will find some useful resources including a course about adjectives, adverbs, articles, gender (feminine, masculine…), negation, nouns, numbers, phrases, plural, prepositions, pronouns, questions, verbs, vocabulary, excercises… to help you with your Turkish grammar Enjoy our courses!

Turkish Lessons

Learning Turkish can help you communicate with other people who speak Turkish. The following courses will provide you with some help based on the lessons you choose. Here is a list of what we offer:

1-    Plural Lesson

Beforehand we must bear in mind that in the Turkish language definite and indefinite articles and gender do not exist. This being the case, adjectives, as in English, do not change according to gender. Nor do they become plural if the noun is plural, just as in English.

While in English, the plural is formed by adding (s) to the singular. In Turkish, to form the plural of nouns we add (ler or lar) to all words whether they end in a vowel or consonant. Here are some examples:

Arkadaş (a friend) becomes:Arkadaşlar (friends)

Kutu (box) becomes kutular (boxes)

Bu benim kırmızı arabam (this is my red car) becomes: Bunlar benim kırmızı arabalarım (these are my red cars)

2-    Adverbs Lesson

While in English adverbs are usually formed by adding (-ly) to adjectives. In Turkish many adverbs are actually   adjectives but relating to the verb instead the noun.. Examples:

Yavaş adam (A slow man). Adam yavaş konuştu.  The man spoke slowly.

Mükemmel atlet (A perfect athlete) Atlet mükemmel koştu. ( The athlete ran perfectly)

Some words are adverbs by nature. For example:

Şimdi (now),  yakında (soon) are  Turkish adverbs. Gerçek (real) as an adverb is used as gerçekten ( really) when relatıng to a verb.. That is gerçek can only be used as an adjective and gerçekten must precede the verb as an adverb. Gerçek olay (real incident) Gerçekten yaptı (He really dit it.

3-    Adjectives Lesson

While in English an adjective doesn’t change when the noun changes, which is the same in Turkish.. Bu benim küçük oğlumdur (This my younger son) Bu benim küçük kızımdır (This is my younger daughter.):Also, the adjectıve is always sıngular whether the noun it precedes is sıngular or plural.

4-    Numbers Lesson

In Turkish numbers from 1 to 20 are unique and therefore need to be memorized individually. Numbers from 21 and upwards are formed by using the following pattern: for example 21 can be formed by using 20 + 1 while connecting them. 22 = yirmi iki. 45 can be formed by using 40 + beş + 5 while connecting them: 45 = kırk beş

5-    Articles Lesson

They do not exist. Kitap ( book) is the nominative form of the noun. Putting the noun in the accusative i.e. the book  (kitabı) would correspond to what we call a definite article. The accusative is always the direct object. The nominative may be the  direct object or the subject.  :Kitap seviyorum (I like book(s). Kitabı seviyorum (I like the book) Kitap düştü (The book fell) In the fırst example kitap is a direct object and in the latter  it is the subject.

Indefinite Article:

6-    Verbs Lessons

–       Present Tense

In Turkish, verbs take the following endings to form the present tense:

Ben –yorum sen-yorsun o- yor, biz-yoruz, siz-yorsunuz, onlar-yorlar Example:

Ben konuşuyorum, Sen konuşuyorsun, O konuşuyor,Biz konuşuyoruz, Siz konuşuyorsunuz, Onlar konuşuyorlar I, You He,She,It We You They Speak/s)

These endings can help you a lot, because with them you can conjugate most of verbs into the present tense, you only need the stem of the verb, for example the stem of (konuşmak: to speak) is (konuşmak).Also bear in mind the third person singular and plural in Turkish are the same for all genders just as it is only in the third person plural in English

–       Past Tense

In Turkish as well as in English the simple past tense (imperfect) is used to describe past events. The endings for the past tense verbs are:

Ben-dim, Sen -din, O idi, Biz idik, Siz idiniz,Onlar idiler. Example :

Ben oynadım, Sen oynadın, O oynadı, Biz oynadık, Siz oynadınız, Onlar oynadılar. Oynamak (to play)

So just take any regular verb stem and add it to the endings above, for example our previous verb oynamak  (to play), its stem is “oyna”, plus the endings above becomes Ben oynadım (I platyed).

–       Future Tense

To form the future in Turkish it’s very easy, just use the whole infinitive verb plus the following endings;:Ben- eceğim/acağım, Sen- eceksin/acaksın, O- ecek/acak biz-eceğiz/acağız, Siz-eceksiniz/acaksınız, onlar- ecekler/acaklar. Example:

gideceğim,  gideceksin, gidecek, gideceğiz, gideceksiniz, gidecekler  gitmek (to leave, go)

This means that you don’t have to worry about the stem of a verb, just take it as an infinitive and add the above future endings to it. However, as you have notıced there are two options which are dependent on the vowels in the stem. Of the eight vowels:a,o,u,ı are considered as the wide vowels and e,i, ü (eu) and ö (French “e”) are considered as the narrow vowels.The latter voweled stems take “ece. . “to form the future and the wide voweled ones “aca. . .”

7-    Asking a Question Lesson

In Turkish there is only one way to ask a question. The word “mi, mi, mü or mu according to the vowels contained in the conjugation of the verb are added at the end of the statement.. Gelecek mi? (Will he come) Geliyor mu? ) Is he coming?  Yaptı mı? (Did he do it?) Öküz mü?(Is that an ox) In other words there is no such thing as the inversion of the subject and pronoun to ask a question. Take away the word “mi, mı, mu or mü” and the question becomes a statement.

-Finally you can also make a question by adding a tag question to the end of a statement. O yapti değil mi? (He did it didn’t he?)  Bu even in a tag question the word “mi,mı,mu,mü”  must be added.

8-    Negation Lesson

In Turkish, negation can be made simply by placing adding the suffix me/ma after the stem of the verb. Geliyor (He/she is coming) Gelmiyor (He/she is not coming.

Yapamiyor (He/she can’t do this) – to add “can’t” and `e/a is added to the normal conjugation. Yapmıyor ( He is not doing it Yapamıyor (He cannot do it)

In Turkısh double negatıves are not accepted. Ne bunu yaptı, ne de onu (He did neither this or that ( Previously double negatives were acceptable. )

9-    Feminine Lesson

There is no feminine lesson in Turkish  since adjectives do not change according to gender nor do possessive pronouns ( see explanation about possessive adjectives and pronouns below). gender. Benim kızım (my daughter) and benim oğlum ( my son) illustrates this. Likewise, the word öğrenci (student) is the same for both genders.

10- Pronouns Lesson

In English subject personal pronouns are (I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they), and object personal  pronouns are (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them), In Turkish, subject  personal pronouns are:

Ben, sen, o biz,siz onlar,

Ben öğreniyorum, sen öğreniyorsun, o öğreniyor, Biz öğreniyoruz, siz öğreniyorsunuz, onlar öğreniyorlar  learn ( öğrenmek) The second person plural  is used for politeness for the second person singular like the French ”vousvoyer” or the Spanish third person singular or third person plural (usted and ustedes)

Indirect Object Pronouns:

To better understand object pronouns it useful to remember that  all subject pronouns are in the nominative form. There are four more forms left: of which the following two suffice.

Accusative or direct object                            Dative or Indirect Object

Beni  Me              Bizi           Us                                   Bana   to me               Bize      to us

Seni   You            Sizi          You                                 Sana   to you               Size      to you

Onu    Him/her                 Onları       Them                             Ona    to him/her         Onlara   to them

Possessive Pronouns:

These pronouns are the “genitive” form of pronouns which were not included above. (This leave us one more form: Ablative which we will not discuss here) What is to be remembered is that in Turkish there is no such category of possessive adjectives. Therefore what we know in English as possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns are the same.

Benim my /Senin  your/ onun his(her)/ Bizim our/sizin your/ onların their

Therefore, Benim kıtabım (My book) Bu benim (This mine) both use “benim” for “my” and “mine.” Thus, my/mine, your/yours/his/his/ her/hers/ its/ our/ours, your/yours, their/theirs is the same thing in Turkish.

We hope the lessons above helped you learn Turkish. To learn other topics please check our homepage here: Learn Turkish. Don’t forget to bookmark this page.

 

 

 

 

Turkish Verbs

If you’re trying to learn Turkish Verbs you will find some useful resources including a course about Verbs in the present past and future tense… to help you with your Turkish grammar. Try to concentrate on the lesson and notice the pattern that occurs each time the word changes its place. Also don’t forget to check the rest of our other lessons listed on Learn Turkish. Enjoy the rest of the lesson!

Turkish Verbs

Learning the Turkish Verbs displayed below is vital to the language. Turkish verbs are words that convey action (bring, read, walk, run), or a state of being (exist, stand). In most languages a verb may agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object.

Grammar Tips:

–       Present Tense

In Turkish, to form a present tense sentence we put  a suffix at the end of the verb. See the examples below:

İzle (mek) : (to) watch

İzle –r – im : I watch    ( here we understand the time with the help of the suffix “–r”. “im” stands for I

  

İzle-r-im         I                            As you can see the suffix that comes after “–r” shows us

İzle-r-sin       You                        who does the activity.

İzle-r             He / She / It

İzle-r-iz         We

İzle-r-siniz    You

İzle-r –ler     They

Beside the suffix “–r” some verbs can take the suffixes  “-er, -ir, -ür, -ar” but this usage  has a little complicated rule. To know this rule, the learners need to practice the language.

–       Past Tense

In Turkish past tense is shown with the suffixes  “-dı, -di, -du, -dü”

İzle – di – m       I watched

İzle – di – n        You watched

İzle – di              He / She / It watched

İzle – di – k        We watched

İzle – di – niz     You watched

İzle – di – ler      They watched

–       Future Tense

In Turkish to give future meaning we use the suffix “–ecek”

İzle – y – eceğ – im       I will watch

İzle – y – ecek – sin      You will watch

İzle – y –  ecek              He / She / It will watch

İzle – y – eceğ – iz        We will watch

İzle – y – ecek – siniz   You will watch

İzle – y – ecek – ler       They will watch

Here we see two more rules:

  1. If the verb ends with a vowel and the suffix also starts with a vowel we use one of the letters “y, ş, s, n” between the two vowels. For example the letter “y” above.
  2. Although we said that the future tense suffix is “-ecek” we used “-eceğ”. The reason is : If the words ending with the consonants “p, ç, t, k”  take a suffix starting with a vowel,   “p, ç, t, k”   turn into “b, c, d, g, ğ”

 

Here are some examples:

English Verbs Turkish Verbs
Verbs Fiiller
Past Geçmiş Zaman
I spoke Konuştum
I wrote Yazdım
I drove Sürdüm
I loved Sevdim
I gave Verdim
I smiled Gülümsedim
I took Aldım
he spoke konuştu
he wrote yazdı
he drove sürdü
he loved sevdi
he gave verdi
he smiled gülümsedi
he took aldı
we spoke konuştuk
we wrote yazdık
we drove sürdük
we loved sevdik
we gave verdik
we smiled gülümsedik
we took aldık
Future Gelecek Zaman
I will speak Konuşacağım
I will write Yazacağım
I will drive Süreceğim
I will love Seveceğim
I will give Vereceğim
I will smile Gülümseyeceğim
I will take Alacağım
he will speak konuşacak
he will write yazacak
he will drive sürecek
he will love sevecek
he will give verecek
he will smile gülümseyecek
he will take alacak
we will speak konuşacağız
we will write yazacağız
we will drive süreceğiz
we will love seveceğiz
we will give vereceğiz
we will smile gülümseyeceğiz
we will take alacağız
Present Şimdiki Zaman
I speak Konuşuyorum
I write Yazıyorum
I drive Sürüyorum
I love Seviyorum
I give Veriyorum
I smile Gülümsüyorum
I take Alıyorum
he speaks konuşuyor
he writes yazıyor
he drives sürüyor
he loves seviyor
he gives veriyor
he smiles gülümsüyor
he takes alıyor
we speak konuşuyoruz
we write yazıyoruz
we drive sürüyoruz
we love seviyoruz
we give veriyoruz
we smile gülümsüyoruz
we take alıyoruz

Notice the structure of the Verbs in Turkish.

List of Verbs in Turkish

Below is a list of the conjugated Verbs in the present past and future in Turkish placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Turkish vocabulary.

English Verbs Turkish Verbs
I can accept that Bunu kabul edebilirim
she added it ekledi
we admit it kabul etti
they advised him onu tavsiye ettiler
I can agree with that katılabilirim
she allows it buna izin veriyor
we announce it bunu duyurduk
I can apologize özür dileyebilirim
she appears today bugün görünür
they arranged that bunu onlar düzenlemiş
I can arrive tomorrow yarın varabilirim
she can ask him ona sorabilir
she attaches that şunu ekler
we attack them onlara saldırdık
they avoid her ondan çekiniyorlar
I can bake it onu fırında pişirebilirim
she is like him Ona benzer
we beat it onu kovduk, dövdük
they became happy mutlu oldular
I can begin that şununla başlayabilirim
we borrowed money ödünç para aldık
they breathe air hava soluyorlar
I can bring it onu getirebilirim
I can build that onu inşa edebilirim
she buys food yiyecek (satın) alıyor
we calculate it bunu hesapladık
they carry it onu taşıyorlar
they don’t cheat hile yapmıyorlar
she chooses him onu seçti
we close it kapattık
he comes here buraya geliyor
I can compare that şununla karşılaştırabilirim ki
she competes with me bana rakip
we complain about it ondan şikayetçiyiz
they continued reading okumaya devam ettiler
he cried about that … için göz yaşı döktü
I can decide now şimdi karar verebilirim
she described it to me onu bana tarif etti
we disagree about it onun hakkında aynı fikirde değiliz
they disappeared quickly hızla kayboldular
I discovered that şunu anladım ki
she dislikes that … dan hoşlanmaz
we do it biz yaparız
they dream about it … çok istiyorlar
I earned kazandım
he eats a lot çok yiyiyor
we enjoyed that … hoşumuza gitti
they entered here buraya girdiler
he escaped that … dan kaçtı
I can explain that Ben açıklayabilirim ki
she feels that too Bunu o da hissediyor
we fled from there oradan
they will fly tomorrow yarın uçacak / uçakla gidecek
I can follow you seni takip edebilirim
she forgot me o beni unuttu
we forgive him onu affedelim
I can give her that Bunu ona verebilirim
she goes there oraya gidiyor
we greeted them onları selamladık
I hate that Bundan nefret ediyorum
I can hear it onu duyabiliyorum
she imagine that … hayal ediyor
we invited them onları davet ettik
I know him Onu tanıyorum
she learned it onu öğrendi
we leave now şimdi çıkıyoruz
they lied about him onun hakkında yalan söylediler
I can listen to that Bunu dinleyebilirim
she lost that bunu kaybetti
we made it yesterday onu dün yaptık
they met him onunla buluştular
I misspell that bunu yanlış yazdım
I always pray her zaman dua ederim
she prefers that bunu tercih eder
we protected them onları koruduk
they will punish her onu cezalandıracaklar
I can put it there onu oraya koyabilirim
she will read it onu okuyacak
we received that bunu aldık
they refuse to talk konuşmayı reddediyorlar
I remember that bunu hatırlıyorum
she repeats that bunu tekrarlıyor
we see it onu görüyoruz
they sell it onu sattılar
I sent that yesterday bunu dün gönderdim
he shaved his beard sakalını kesti
it shrunk quickly hızla küçüldü
we will sing it onu söyleyeceğiz (şarkı)
they sat there orada oturuyorlar
I can speak it bunu konuşabilirim
she spends money o para harcar
we suffered from that biz bundan zarar gördük
they suggest that bunu önerdiler
I surprised him onu şaşırttım
she took that bunu aldı
we teach it onu öğrettik
they told us bize anlattılar
she thanked him ona teşekkür etti
I can think about it bunu düşünebilirim
she threw it onu attı
we understand that bunu anlıyoruz
they want that bunu istiyorlar
I can wear it onu giyebilirim
she writes that … diye yazıyor
we talk about it hakkında konuşuyoruz
they have it buna sahipler
I watched it (onu) izledim
I will talk about it bunun hakkında konuşacağım
he bought that yesterday bunun dün aldı
we finished it (onu) bitirdik

 

Verbs in the present past and future tense have a very important role in Turkish. Once you’re done with Turkish Verbs, you might want to check the rest of our Turkish lessons here: Learn Turkish. Don’t forget to bookmark this page.

 

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